Bollywood After 9/11 – The Depiction of Islam and the West in Indian Cinema

Since the dramatic events of 9/11, Bollywood cinema has shown an unusual interest in the terrorist film genre, especially as regards to international terrorism and global tensions between Islam and the West. Striking examples of this genre include Kabir Khan’s New York (2008), Karan Johar’s My Name is Khan (2010), Rensil D’Silva’s Kurbaan (2009) and Apoorva Lakhia’s Mission Istanbul, to name a few. Films like Anil Sharma’s Ab Tumhare Hawale Watam Sathiyo (2004) and Subhash Ghai’s Black and White (2008) focus on terrorist issues within the Indian subcontinent itself. The latter films have continued in the tradition of pre 9/11 terrorist films like Vidhu Vinod Chopra’s Mission Kashmir (2000), Mani Ratnam’s Dil Se (1998) and Bombay (1995). Ratnam’s Bombay dealt with the devastating Hindu and Moslem riots in 1991, which cost over a 1000 lives. Chopra’s Mission Kashmir dealt with a scenario of local terrorist activity in the Kashmir region sponsored by international terrorist cells working from Afghanistan. In this way the terrorist genre is not an entirely new genre in Bollywood, nor is terrorism an unfamiliar phenomenon in the day to day activities of the Indian subcontinent (the most recent and brutal terrorist attack was the Mumbai massacre in 2008). What makes the recent spate of terrorist films interesting is that they have entered the global sphere and have become part and parcel of a transnational dialogue between East and West and Islam and the other.

To make the terrorist genre more palatable, Bollywood has traditionally spiced up the violence and suspense with the hallmark Bollywood song and dance interludes and sentimental romantic exchanges between the hero and heroine. Mission Kashmir is notorious for its graceful dances and stirring emotional exchanges between the main protagonists, played out on the violent backdrop of terrorism in Kashmir. Mani Ratnam’s Bombay likewise mixes up the most brutal scenes of Hindu and Moslem hatred and violence with delicious comedy and a forbidden love affair between a pious Moslem girl and a boy from a highly placed Shaivite Hindu family. His father is the trustee of the village temple and both the family patriarchs are violently opposed to the children marrying outside their caste and religious community.

Karan Johar’s My Name is Khan

Following in the Bollywood tradition of mixing genres (known in the industry as the masala or spicy recipe film), Karan Johar’s My Name is Khan blends comedy and romance with the political hot potato of post 9/11 bigotry and racial hatred in the US. The film’s theme of ultra-nationalist extremism culminates in the senseless killing of a young Indian boy Sam or Sameer, who is beaten to death by youths in the football ground, in part due to the adopting of his stepfather’s name Khan. Overflowing gushes of emotion and heart stirring romantic songs, such as the mixing of the 1960’s counter culture anthem “We Shall Overcome” (sung in both Hindi and English), occur throughout the film to both lighten the tension and to exemplify the presence of light and hope in a world darkened by the bitter shadow of global terrorism. The fact that the central protagonist Rizvan Khan is a pious Moslem, and politically neutral to the hysteria of the debate, is significant. Brought up by his mother that there are no fixed labels such as Hindu and Moslem, but only good and bad people, Rizvan Khan freely practises his religion with equal love and respect for all other races and creeds, only differentiating between what is in the hearts and minds of people, not to what religion they profess, or to what race, culture and nationality they belong.

My Name is Khan is also significant for Bollywood fans in that it reunites the biggest heart throb couple of Hindi cinema from previous decades, Kajol and Shah Rukh Khan. The duo was previously paired in two of Karan Johar’s earlier blockbusters Kuch Kuch Hota Hai (1995) and Kabhi Kushi Kabhie Gham (2001). Both of these films were sentimental gushy romances, literally overflowing with juicy outpourings of emotion and feeling; a phenomenon which is termed rasa in India. The song and dance sequences were also very elaborately staged and combined a balance of the traditional Indian music and dance forms (Hindustani music and traditional folk dances) as well as modern Western forms. This ensured the films’ immense popularity in both India and diaspora countries like Canada, the US and the UK.

Karan Johar continues to utilise the Bollywood masala formula in My Name is Khan, exploiting a sentimental and occasionally drawn out love affair between the autistic hero Rizvan Khan and his eventual Hindu wife Mandira, a proprietor of a successful hair dressing salon in San Francisco (the “city of love” which symbolizes the 1960s counter culture movement exploited by Johar in the “We Shall Overcome” sequence). In the preliminary scenes of the film, America is portrayed as the land of freedom and opportunity, the nation where all races and religions are given the possibility to move forward and achieve prosperity and happiness in a way that is seen to be almost impossible in a country like traditional India, buffeted as it is with caste and religious prejudices and between half and two thirds of its population living in poverty.

For foreign nationals or NRI’s (non-resident Indians), however, 9/11 radically changes this formula and shatters the American dream nurtured for decades by an Indian diaspora which has merged its Indian cultural roots with American ideals of individual freedom and consumer prosperity. According to Johar’s film, this is now the plight of the Khans who, instead of continuing to act as fully integrated members of the mainstream community, now suddenly find themselves on the periphery of a post-9/11″us and them” rhetoric, fuelled by an ultra-nationalist Republican President, who perceives the world in black and white realities, which have little to do with the everyday lives of the average individual. It is no coincidence that it is the newly elected President Barack Obama (played by his look alike Christopher B. Duncan) who greets Rizvan Khan at the end of the movie and applauds him for his faith in God and his humanity and perseverance. For Karan Johar, Obama’s election is symbolic of the “us and them” divisions in the US psyche being brought to a close along with the restoration of the innate ideals for which the American Republic and its people stand.

Before the nation’s divisions are healed, however, the Khan’s experience extreme personal hardships due to their ethnicity. These hardships culminate in the tragic death of their teenage son Sameer, beaten to death in the school playing field by racist youths. In her grief, Sameer’s mother Mandira blames her husband Rizvan, accusing him of the fact that if she and her son had not taken the name of Khan, he would not be dead. She then tells him that the only way he can atone for this stigma of being a Khan and, by implication a Moslem, is to meet the US President (at the time it is George W. Bush) and to tell him that: “My Name is Khan and I am not a Terrorist.” This simple phrase becomes a kind of mantra throughout the film, powerfully confronting the viewer’s post-9/11 prejudices by refusing to link the two concepts of Islam and terrorism together: i.e. my name is Khan, therefore I am a Moslem, but at the same time just because I am a Moslem, does this mean that I am a terrorist? Unhappily, during the hysteria that followed in the wake of 9/11 for many Westerners the two terms, Moslem and terrorist became pretty much synonymous.

This is a film therefore which, unlike its predecessors, is not only aimed at instructing Indians and West Asians (it broke all records in Pakistan), but is also aimed at educating and enlightening Westerners. This it does in a very subtle and didactic way, not only through its exploitation of familiar West Asian icons, but also through its exploration of themes and images universal to the US and the West: the 1960s counter culture, the plight of the coloured people in the South and references to the civil rights movement via the film’s theme song “We Shall Overcome.” This famous anti-establishment song from 1960s when sung in Hindi by a devout Moslem in a black gospel church gives the audience an almost surreal feeling of both merging and, at the same time transcending, national, racial and socio-religious cultural borders: a path to world brotherhood and unity which has been courageously expounded by two of the twentieth century’s great spiritual leaders, India’s Mahatma Gandhi and America’s Martin Luther King.

Karan Johar thus draws upon both the Western ideals of liberty and individualism, as well as propounding the roots of West Asian religious piety and communal solidarity. By doing this My Name is Khan proposes an alternate model of global brotherhood and transnational identities and exchanges. This new global model for Johar is one which draws its inspiration and ideals from the grass roots level- from the poor coloureds of Georgia, from the socially ostracised Moslems, and from the autistic and mentally handicapped. All of them are an integral part of this global humanity and in the end the figure of Shah Rukh Khan, the biggest megastar in the global forum today (including Hollywood), speaks for all of them, when he says my name is Khan and I am not a terrorist, not an outcaste and not a threat to the US or the essential values which it seeks to export to the rest of the world. Rather, as pious Moslems, those like Rizvan Khan have something of value to contribute to the US and the West, and when those in power allow them to do so, the essential values which have made the US great can not only be maintained but increased and broadened. On the other hand, ultranationalist extremist practises will only create more and more hatred and division, so that even those who have assimilated the American Dream will grow to become its most sworn enemies. This is the main theme of Kabir Khan’s New York, which I will briefly discuss in part two of this article.

Kabir Khan’s New York

Although not as successful at the box office as Karan Johar’s blockbuster, Kabir Khan’s New York is perhaps an even more interesting example of the transnational trend in the Bollywood terrorist genre. Released in 2008, New York focuses on the lives of three trendy young Indians studying at New York State University together. The usual Bollywood masala romance dominates the first half of the film, focusing on a sentimental love triangle between Maya (Katrina Kaif), Sameer or Sam (John Abrahams) and Omar (Neil Mukesh). Both Katrina Kaif and John Abrahams, as well as Irrfan Khan (playing the FBi agent Roshan) are well established stars in Bollywood (Irrfan Khan also starred as the policeman who interrogates the main protagonist in Slumdog Millionaire). And the presence of these stars, along with the solid musical score and the dramatic love triangle scenario, assured the film’s success despite its controversial theme. Significantly, Sam and Maya fall in love and shatter Omar’s emotional world at around the same time as the two hijacked passenger planes are driven into the Twin Towers. As with My Name is Khan, actual footage of the terrorist attack on the World Trade Centre is utilised in the film.

From this point onwards, a film which has been mostly centred upon a sentimental love conflict between three friends now becomes a political indictment of the Bush administration’s post-9/11 terrorist policies. Sam, as part of the FBI’s nationwide hunt for terror suspects, is arrested, incarcerated and tortured. These tortures are graphically depicted in the film and are apparently based on true life accounts of innocent victims, who have been illegally arrested and incarcerated for no other reason than their having the wrong ethnic background and religious persuasion. During the final credits a grim note to this effect informs the viewers of the facts that: “In the days following 9/11 more than 1200 men of foreign origin in the US were illegally abducted, detained and tortured for as long as 3 years. The government did not find evidence linking a single one of them to the 9/11 attack….”

The central protagonist Sam or Sameer functions as a prototype for these 1200 men. Indeed, from being a totally assimilated American before his torture and arrest, Sam now becomes a Moslem Jihadi, fusing his hatred for the United States with that of terrorist cells in Pakistan, Afghanistan and the Middle East. His old friend Omar is recruited by the FBI to spy on Sameer and his Hindu wife Maya and to crack open Sameer’s links to international terrorist cells. Omar is coerced into betraying his friends at the threat of disappearing into the FBI’s custody and being tortured for months on end as Sameer had been. In this way, even if the film does not actively promote Jihad as a fundamental tenet of Islam, it does portray a sympathetic psychological profile of the terrorist mind-set. Sameer’s friend Omar eventually understands this also when he is given Sam’s story and the barbaric nature of the ordeals he has had to endure and which have caused him to become an international terrorist.

Unlike Rizvan Khan, who has no qualms about informing the FBI about the fanatic Doctor Faisal’s terrorist plot in My Name is Khan, New York’s Omar is torn between his sympathies for his friend Sam/Sameer and the US system of liberty and justice, which he sees as being seriously undermined by George Bush’s invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan and his repressive domestic policies in the US, where under the Patriot Act fundamental individual rights and liberties of American citizens are apparently violated for no other reason than that they are of another ethnicity, culture and religious persuasion than the mainstream white majority. Omar, as the voice of reason and sensibility in New York, also represents the neutral observer, who is both within the system (he is educated at New York State University) and is outside it (he is an NRI national from Delhi living in the US). He has also been in love with Sam’s wife Maya but has tried to detach himself from these feelings, indeed from feeling anything at all. As such his decision to infiltrate his friend’s terrorist group and take part in its Jihad is significant. Omar is an “undecideable”; he is unsure of his identity, unsure of his ideals and his loyalties. Eventually, he betrays Sam and his group and communicates Sam’s plan to blow up the FBI headquarters to the FBI agent Roshan and the relevant authorities.

Despite promises from Roshan and the FBI executive heads, both Sameer and Maya are shot dead by FBI snipers during negotiations for Sameer’s surrender. According to Kabir Khan’s controversial film, this kind of FBI brutality and overkill is symptomatic of the new post-9/11 ultra-nationalist America which, in its unrelenting quest to punish the guilty, also leaves in its wake the bloodied corpses of the innocent: not just Maya, but arguably also Sam himself. This is a theme which has been taken up courageously and sometimes uncompromisingly by Hindi cinema.

Another powerful example of this uncompromising condemnation of post-9/11America occurs in Rensil D’Silva’s Kurbaan. Here, in an open discussion university forum, the main protagonist Riyaaz condemns US intervention in Afgahanistan and Iraq, claiming that the world’s biggest terrorists are the white super powers. Riyaaz informs the ethnic white students present about certain uncomfortable realities in US politics, such as the fact that the Taliban was a creation of the CIA and that more than 500,000 civilians were killed in Iraq. Much to the horror and consternation of the students present, Riyaaz concludes his speech by saying that “just because you wear a suit and call yourself President does not make you any less a terrorist.” This is pretty bold stuff and seems to be reflective of the growing dissatisfaction of certain Bollywood filmmakers towards a period in history where the West appeared to go totally wrong taking the downward path from humanitarian ideals of universal equality and democracy to policies of religious bigotry and totalitarianism.

Interestingly, although these themes have also been taken up by Hollywood, in films such as James Cameron’s Avatar, they have been depicted in a less direct way. In Avatar, for example, the” shock and awe campaign” unleashed upon the indigenous inhabitants of the planet Pandora (clearly a reference to Bush’s shock and awe campaign against Iraq), occurs in the context of an ingenious fantasy universe, where the brutality of corporate capitalism and US neo-imperialist policies is downplayed in that it not only happens in the safety of another continent, as with Iraq and Afghanistan, but occurs on another planet entirely!

The new Bollywood terrorist genre is therefore a more uncompromising and indeed disturbing contribution to the global debate than films like Avatar. This is due to the fact that West Asian directors depict terrorist activity from the contemporary political standpoint, along with exploring relevant issues connected with the stigmatised cultural and ethnic group, which has been largely denied a voice in this debate ever since the 9/11 event took place. As has traditionally been the case in Indian cinema, the new Bollywood terrorist genre gives the Moslem minorities a voice, telling their story from the inside, making them subject and not object and narrating the plot from the perspective of their culture, religion and community base. In My Name is Khan, for example, Rizvan’s sister in law Hasina is persuaded to remove her hijab (head scarf) after being attacked and having it forcibly removed by an unknown assailant. Eventually, she restores the hijab to her everyday dress, including her lecturing job at university. Here she says to her students: “M y hijab is not just my religious identity. It is a part of my existence. It is me.”

In Rensil D’Silva’s Kurbaan, the central protagonist Riyaaz is also instrumental in educating white university students about their preconceptions of Islam as a violent religion and the Koran as a scripture promoting Jihad. Riyaaz flatly informs the students that the word Jihad is in fact mentioned in the Koran only 41 times, but that the term mercy and compassion is mentioned 355 times. In this way, the film’s viewers are also informed that Islam is predominantly a religion of compassion and peace and not violence and bloodshed, as right wing vested interest groups have led us to believe in the past decade or so.

It is these perspicacious insights from within the socio-religious roots of West Asian culture which makes Indian cinema, often dismissed in the West as sentimental and trivial, such a profoundly didactic medium from which audiences, especially in the West, can increase their scant knowledge about the psychology behind Hindu and Moslem icons and spiritual practises. In an increasingly global world, where these icons and practises are continually crossing over and clashing with Western standards, this knowledge and awareness is not only relevant to us in the West, it is fundamental to our very existence.

Films like New York and My Name is Khan are an integral part of the teaching of that awareness.

Robert Rintoull

PhD Graduate

Copenhagen University

How to Determine If a Criminal Justice Degree is Right For You

Many have asked themselves whether a criminal justice degree is right for them. Obtaining a degree in criminal justice can be very rewarding for the right person. But to enjoy these rewards, you must be interested in the law enforcement industry above anything else. More than requiring pure interest, a degree in criminal justice is often ideal for either: students who have a strong passion for justice and law enforcement, or those currently working in law enforcement, who are trying to become promoted or achieve a higher feeling of growth in their profession.

For students, a degree in this field is not absolutely necessary to enter into law enforcement, but it is certainly recommended and will most likely lead to more money and hiring preference. Before you start, really ask yourself if this degree program is right for you. For instance, have you ever imagined yourself at the scene of a crime, solving the case by putting together the crucial pieces? Your calling might be a job in forensics or crime scene investigation, and a degree in criminal justice could help get you in the door. Can’t decide between a profession in medicine or law? You can work in both areas by becoming a legal nurse consultant and protect workers’ legal and medical rights.

For those already in the law enforcement and justice administrative industry, you may want to further expand your growth, and obtaining a degree in criminology will help tremendously. There are a number of degree programs that will be most appropriate, depending on your position. For example, police officers and detectives can obtain an associate degree as well as a bachelor degree. In addition, individuals who work in the homeland security division can continue their education by becoming a holder of a Master of Arts degree.

If you are one who takes pleasure in fighting for justice and working in a constantly changing environment, a criminal justice degree may be the perfect one for you.

Divisible By Profit

A new dawning has occurred, bringing with it an epidemic of truly false euphemisms. Our techno-gadget society has fallen prey to a vector so shrewd and unassuming that when the completely ridiculous is displayed, new millennium, politically correct terminology illuminates with little resistance. This misrepresented peril in particular has become a major erosion to our country, faith and justice system. Pacification as well as profit has replaced justice.

To begin with, when is it proper to attend a birthday celebration without acknowledgment of the birthday recipient? Maybe this is a petulant squabble. Christmas celebrates the birth of Jesus. Using the content of your wallet and maxing out your credit/debit card has little to do with the celebratory act but as not to offend–further, you are often greeted with ‘Happy holidays; Season’s Greetings but not the expected salutation, ‘Merry Christmas!’ The entire atmosphere created nowadays is an inept bombardment of high expectations of savings on items you don’t really need, for family and associates that you feel compelled to spend for -all the while hearing, listening and even participating in the traditional Christmas music overhead. Spending is the celebration.

It is especially apparent when daily news reports are focused on the pitiful condition reflected in our economy, the grim forecast of a company’s future, massive layoffs and the actual value of a ‘green back.’ Christmas is no longer the season of giving and wishing well of others; instead it has become the elongation of ‘Black Friday.’

Consumerism! This is the holiday solely geared towards getting many retailers into the black before January 1st. Advertisements have become elaborately whorish in the displays of projected wares to be sold.

Thanksgiving has triangulated with Christmas and the illusionary finances used for buying. However, January will reconnect the dots, as the refinancing paranoia will be in demand but unavailable for many sobering consumers.

Another more rooted and penetrating reality focuses on the largest organ of our bodies. It’s an amazingly resilient member that has an abrasive historical past. Because of its massive coverage, rules, even laws, past and current, have quietly and furiously articulated attitudes and judging patterns forcing legal and non-legal entities to expose antiquated stereotypes which continue to contaminate the masses, striking a chord with various supporters, even if a burgeoning interest.

A more muted performance has increased on a municipal scale. Racial profiling has become a bit more prolific through tactics used that disproportionately fine, condemn and imprison persons of color at a higher rate for the same offenses wronged by whites.

Stereotyping and acceptance of these attitudes accelerates a more aggressive action.
Fundamentally, the impacts for these injustices are fines. Pay up in order to continue to receive the benefit or loose the privilege. These callous acts define anyone with a hew of melanin egregiously. Without the finances to withstand the tremendous paperwork and know how in dealing with the chicanery involved, a first time offender would do almost anything to keep their threatened independence. Most, if not all, succumb to sanctions. In doing so, a non-verbal guilty plea is entered. How’s that for a write down for freedom?

Profit has unfortunately found its way into the medical arena too. Sure, everyone needs financial gain but as whose risk? There are a few approaches that could be taken.
This is the one, which maims or even kills.

Potential patients want a specific treatment (cosmetic and non health/life threatening surgeries). They fail to learn all that needs to be known about all potential health risks involved. The focus for both doctor and patient is that as long as there is no cap to the financial abilities, the needless surgeries may be performed and even repeated. This is true to plastic surgery junkies. Patient cannot stop requesting surgery for this tuck and that implant. The doctor looses complete sense of the Hippocratic oath taken and becomes saturated in greed.

Just when you thought all the bases were covered, our state government now has the ability to abuse its power by infringing on the dream that many Americans hope to experience. Eminent Domain, a legal principal used to take property from a landowner in order to use the land for a public use, is becoming a more familiar term in our daily vernacular. The owner is offered a ‘so called fair price’ and the new owner replaces the old property with a highway, municipal or school building however, eminent domain is being denoted for the benefit of developers and commercial interests and profiting at 10 times the cost. Sadly, rapacity has taken over a great many things. It does not seem to be a wanton action but in quite a few cases, a stealthy economic one.

Differences Between Civil and Criminal Law

Civil laws are the sets of laws and justice that affect the legal status of individuals. Civil law, therefore, is commonly referred to in comparison to criminal law, which is that body of law involving the state against individuals (including corporate organizations) where the state relies on the power given it by statutory law. Statutory laws are laws agreed upon and incorporated by the US Legislature. Where there are legal alternatives for sources of action by individuals within any of these sections of law, this falls in the civil realm.

Civil law courts provide opportunities for resolving disputes involving torts. Torts are laws that address and provide remedies for, civil wrongs not arising out of contracts or similar obligations. Torts include: accidents, negligence, contract disputes, the administration of wills, trusts, property disputes, commercial law, and other private matters that involve private parties and organizations. These may also include government departments. An action by an individual (or legal equivalent) against a state’s attorney general, for example, is a civil matter.

The purposes of civil law vary from other areas of law. In civil law there is the attempt to honor an agreement, correct a wrong-doing or settle a dispute. Any victim in this instance may obtain compensation. The person who is the dishonest party pays. This may be viewed as a civilized form of, or legal option to, retribution. If it is a matter of impartiality, there is often a division which gets distributed by a process of civil law.

Any action in criminal law doesn’t include the obligation to disqualify an action on the civil side. This may provide a device for compensation to the victims of any crime. This type of situation may occur, for example when a guilty part is ordered to pay damages for any wrongful situation (as in a wrongful death). Sometimes, also, for example, this payment of damages may be instead of a judgment of murder.

In criminal law, one may face imprisonment if accusations are beyond a reasonable doubt. Therefore, if investigative personnel determine that these charges are well-substantiated, the accused will face the charges. In civil law, one may be fined for damages found from a predominance of all evidence during any investigation. Instead of imprisonment, often payment is the form of retribution. Charges in civil cases are often less harsh than those in criminal law cases because the punishment pits money against loss of liberty.

The Criminal Justice Degree and Job Options

There is a variety to the career options available to the criminal justice degree holder that you wouldn’t expect.  The entire criminal justice system has professionals educated in this field, and the professions range from counseling services to prison guard.  In most states criminal justice programs have contact with lawbreakers and alleged lawbreakers that combines incarceration with rehabilitation.  The career opportunities are extremely diverse.

Corrections officers.  These individuals act as prison guards for the most part; in some instances they are responsible for the transportation of incarcerated individuals to and from court appearances.  Many corrections officers are hired having obtained an associate’s degree, and some veterans with MP experience are hired with no college experience.  However a corrections officer interested in moving up the criminal justice professional ladder should consider obtaining a bachelor’s degree.

Bailiffs.  A bailiff is responsible for keeping order in county and municipal courtrooms and for shuttling defendants in and out of the courtroom.  Often bailiff services are provided by a county sheriff’s department.  In some sheriff’s departments the bailiff and jail employees are a separate division with lower educational requirements.  An associate’s degree is often sufficient for this position.

Police and Sheriff’s Department Law Enforcement Officers.  The traditional benchmark for a police officer or a county sheriff with patrol responsibilities has been experience in the field or some college training.  Today law enforcement departments are increasingly looking for patrol officers with bachelor’s degrees, for a couple of reasons.  Criminal justice degrees provide a little deeper perspective on the situations and individuals encountered during the course of the job, and officers with a completed bachelor’s degree tend to make better presentations in court.

Parole and Probation Officers.  Today the majority of probation and parole professionals hold master’s degrees in criminal justice, in psychology, or in counseling of some sort.  The criminal justice background is prevalent however, because a probation or parole officer must manage their case load with an eye to the legal implications for various behavioral issues.

Federal Law Enforcement.  Within the Department of Homeland Security today the law enforcement divisions include the FBI, the Secret Service, Alcohol Tobacco and Firearms Bureau, the Border Patrol, National Park Police and several other smaller organizations.  All of them have varying educational requirements; many FBI agents have law or accounting degrees, while Secret Service agents charged with investigating fraud often hold degrees in forensic accounting or computer forensics.  In many of these agencies however, a bachelor’s degree in criminal justice will be enough for an interview.